Is This Judgement Racist & Unlawful

Did This Judge 👨🏻‍⚖️ Make a Racist Statement?

Calling Caucasians ‘White’ People Promotes Racism

Calling Caucasians ‘white’ people, promotes racism

The people of Europe were tricked, many centuries ago, into calling themselves white.

It was part of a powerful psychological plot, to make the people of Europe see themselves as the bright, shining, clean-cut, saviours of the world.

They were white knights; whom their white god (and his son) had created to rule the world.

All other races were inferior to the ‘white race.

All other races were dark and akin to evil spirits.

This Information ℹ️ is Provided by Chiniquy –

lies dark devil II dark devil III DARK DEVIL AND LIGHT ANGEL

These are some of the typical images I saw as a child, showing a Caucasian (white) god fighting off dark (black) evil devils.


We MUST stop referring to Caucasians as ‘white people.”

The term white has the most wonderful definitions in the dictionary.

We are feeding the egos of Caucasians, whenever we call them ‘white.’

Calling Caucasians ‘white,’ will make them subconsciously (and sometimes consciously) believe that they are superior to all other racial groups.

We are unwittingly bolstering racism within Caucasians, by using the term white, as an identification for their race.

We are giving Caucasians a kind of psychological position, over other races; when we call them ‘white.’

Seeing themselves as the ‘white race’, is one of the reasons why; Caucasians continue to believe that they are a superior race.

The goal in stop calling Caucasians ‘white; is to help them, to understand that they are just, equal members of the Human family.

That all Human Beings have been created with the same abilities.

And for Caucasians, to stop seeing their race as being a superior, or master race, above other races.


As part of this plot, all races on Earth were divided into a color scheme.

There was the white race; the black race; the yellow race; the red race; and the brown race.

The purpose of this color scheme was to divide the Human family.

According to the hidden secret promoters of this divisive plot; whites were the top race and all the other colors fell into place below them.

These secret manipulators of the people of Europe; had already been manipulating the European Gentiles for centuries.

They kept control over them; by constantly feeding their egos.

They tricked them into believing that The Creator of the Heavens and Earth; was a ‘white’ god who looked just like them.

And this ‘white’ god, had a ‘white’ son who looked like the typical European, Caucasian male.

They made the Caucasian Christians believe that the ‘white race’ was superior to all other races.

They fed their egos with a false concept of their human worth; thus enabling these evil manipulators to control the people of Europe.

This made the Caucasians of Europe gullible dupes.

They became putty in the hands of the members of this ancient secret society.


This ancient secret group, existed many centuries before the Masonic Order or any other secret groups were even created.

In fact they were instrumental in forming the Masonic Order and later other secret groups like, the Illuminati the Bilderberg Group, the Skull and Bones etc

The people of Europe had become suspicious and believe that a certain ethnic group (Jews) were manipulating and controlling them.

In order to hide themselves, this ancient society created these other secret groups in order to hide among them.

The purpose was to keep themselves well hidden.

They were like a tree hiding among other trees.

But the members of this original group have always been the circle (ring), or secret society that has controlled all the other secret societies (rings).


They have total control of all the secret groups that now exist.

They are the ‘Lords of the Rings.’ They rule all the other secret circles.

They are the ‘ringleaders’.


Identifying people as the yellow, red and brown race have disappeared from common usage in the world today; except for black and white (and of course the Washington Redskins 🙂 ).

The two terms of yellow and brown race have disappeared from common usage; because the people formerly called those racial names, have become very powerful in the world.

The Chinese and the Japanese people were once called the yellow race.

And the people of India and some of the people in the so-called Middle East were once identified as members of the brown race.

Now, no one would dare refer to them by those degrading racial, color names.

Likewise these two terms of black and white, should also disappear from being used to identify Human Beings.


The majority of Caucasians prefer to be called white.

On many occasions, when I have been in conversations with my Caucasian associates; they seemed irritated when I used the term Caucasian instead of white.

I was once asked, by a Caucasian co-worker (with a hurt look on his face), why I was saying Caucasian instead of white.

I told him that, I don’t use color labels as a racial identification for Human Beings.

He nodded in agreement, but I don’t believe, that he was completely satisfied with my answer.


Europeans were deceived centuries ago into calling themselves ‘whites;’ and that deception continues right up to this present century.

They were/are being manipulated by a secret circle (ring); who want the Caucasian race to see themselves as a superior race.

At first the Gentiles’ secret masters, wanted them to go on ‘holy crusades,’ to capture Jerusalem from dark skinned Muslims.

This Information ℹ️ is Provided by Chiniquy –

Ist Crusader battle

In later centuries, they were convinced by their secret masters; that the ‘white race,’ had been given a “Manifest Destiny” from their god, to rule over the whole Earth.

So if they went to lands where there were no other Caucasians; then they claimed to be the discoverers of those lands.

Totally disregarding the native people; who had been living there for centuries.

If those people were not Caucasians; then they didn’t count.

Their ownership of their lands meant nothing to Caucasians.

Their civilization, their culture, their history, their lives; none of it mattered.

Only the ‘white race’ mattered.

The people’s religion and culture was replaced by Christianity (the worship of a Caucasian god and his son) and European culture.

All those who resisted, were called savages and brutally suppressed and killed.

Only ‘white’ lives mattered.

Idol worshippers


“Christian supremacy was later changed to ‘white’ supremacy”

Click below to ‘read the article.

The World’s Plunderers


During the era of European and American imperialism; they had a term,”the whiteman’s burden.”

The whiteman’s burden, meant that Caucasians were given the responsibility, for ruling all the non Caucasian people all over the world.

Non Caucasians were all savages, and Caucasians were the ones to give them civilisation.

That kind of thinking still exist among many Caucasians.

Yes, make America great again.


Comic with a newspaper article; from over 100 years ago.

It shows Britain and the USA were burdened with the responsibility of enlightening the savages from China, Africa, Asia, the so-called Middle East etc. etc.


Additionally we should also stop referring to people of African descent as ‘black.’

The term white has very positive meaning; whereas the term black has very negative meanings.

Contrasting to black are all the wonderful positive descriptions that the term “white” means i.e. pure, purity, innocence, clean, light, bright, clear, honest, free from blemish, angelic etc. etc.

The Spanish may have been the first people from Europe; to call the people of Africa; black (negra).

The description of black, was not just because of the dark complexion of the people in Africa; it was used by them to belittle the people of Africa.

They used the term black as a racial identification, to show that Africans were the opposite of ‘whites.’

Whites were an enlightened, intelligent, beautiful and cultured race.

Whites had a ‘divine spark’ within them.

A divine spark meant that they had a connection to god.

Whereas ‘blacks’ were the opposite.

White was angelic; and black was demonic.

[hint: Angel Fruit Cake is white, whereas Devil’s Fruit Cake is black]

To them black meant ignorant, savage, backwards, ungodly and prone to do evil.

The Caucasian race has been psychologically programmed for centuries to fear and hate ‘black’ people.

It is not the color black that they fear/hate, but just ‘black’ people.

They love black in just about everything else.

They love black clothes, black shoes, black hats, black dogs, black cats, black horses, black automobiles, etc.

Just not ‘black’ people.

This psychological programming to hate and fear ‘black’ people may have began, during the times of the Christian Crusades; to retake Jerusalem from dark skinned Muslims.

Ist Crusader battle

This ancient painting was made, showing the first Christian Crusade in the 11th century

This Information ℹ️ is Provided by Chiniquy –

The Christians of Europe had to be manipulated into seeing the Muslims as ‘black’ and evil.

The Caucasian people of Europe have been fearing and hating dark skinned people since that time.

The Caucasian people of the United States have been fearing African Americans since they began calling themselves black.

They see this black racial name as an act of war.

That is why many Caucasians reacted negatively to the slogan, ‘black lives matter’.

I personally don’t believe that their reaction would have been so negative if the slogan had been, “the lives of African Americans matter’.

Because of the centuries of programming from the European people’s secret manipulators; the term ‘black people’ conjure up all kinds of negative reactions within their souls.

They have been buying and stockpiling weapons since African Americans began demanding that they be called ‘black’ instead of Negro or Colored people; during the 1970s.

They wholeheartedly believe that there will be a war between ‘whites’ and ‘blacks’.

This Information ℹ️ is Provided by Chiniquy –


The majority of definitions in the Dictionary for black is negative.

Black plague,


black magic,

black sheep (bad person),

blacked out (loss of consciousness),

blackout (loss of electrical power),

black hole (object in space),

a black outlook (problems),

black balled (blocked from something),

blacklisted (list of those blocked) etc. etc.

The synonyms for black are also negative:

















funereal (cheerless, joyless),















The majority of these definitions and synonyms have been used historically to describe people of African descent.

A negative label used to identify a people, will in time produce negative behaviour in them.


It has been about 50 years since the people of African descent in America; and in many other parts of the world, adopted the term black; as a racial identification.

And since then (especially in America), African Americans, have been more divided and hateful towards each other; than at any other time in their history.

There have been more senseless killings of each other, in their neighbourhood; than at any other time during our over 400 years in the Americas.

Click below for more detailed explanation: The Danger of Calling Ourselves Black.


The false teachings associated with Christianity is the root cause of Caucasian Racism in the world today.

Jesus of Nazareth was a man who received Divine Inspiration from The Creator.

He was not the Creator (nor the ‘son of The Creator’).

To worship a physical flesh and blood human being as a g-d (or The One *G-D) depicted in a Caucasian image or any other racial image for that matter, will (and has) caused racial division among the Human Family.

Absorb This Information ℹ️


The people who see the resemblance of themselves in the historical fake European painted pictures of Jesus of Nazareth; has erroneously believe that they are superior to others who don’t look like Jesus.

They will believe that The Creator has favoured them above all other races.

Incidentally, the original images of Jesus and his mother were dark skinned.


Many of these statues and paintings, still exist in many parts of Europe.

Off the subject but Buddha was also dark skinned.

This Information ℹ️ is Provided by Chiniquy –

Here is an ancient paining from the Ajanta Caves in India.

The Ajanta paintings are the earliest depictions of Buddha.

Ancient Buddhist art. Obviously Buddha was dark skinned

The lighter skinned image of Jesus became prevalent in Europe, right around the time, the holy crusades began.

The Christians in Europe, had to see Jesus in their own racial image and likeness.

And they had to see the Muslims as being, dark skinned, evil and ungodly.

That was one of the motivating factors for them to travel thousands of miles away from their homelands, to liberate Jerusalem from these dark skinned Muslim infidels.

That was the beginning of the European people’s belief; that it was their god-given right, to enslave and rule all non Caucasian peoples.

The people of those nations who didn’t accept Caucasians as a superior race (through accepting Christianity) were slaughtered or enslaved.


The Merciful G-D has not given us permission to make any physical likeness to HIM.

To say that The All-Mighty Creator of the Heavens and Earth has a son is one of the most blasphemous thing any human being can do.

We have been deceived by the ancient (and still active) secretive Clan of Satan into worshiping G-D as a man.

And the people of the world has been doubly deceived by this trickery into putting the Caucasian race on a pedestal above all the other ethnic groups of people.

This deception has had a devastating effect on all non Caucasians (and Caucasian also).

But its’ effect has been worse on the people of African descent.

Look at how many Christians of African descent world-wide (primarily the women) has tried to alter their physical appearance (straight hair, bleaching skin, etc.) so that they will look more like Caucasian women. negroe


This Information ℹ️ is Provided by Chiniquy –

Sammy Sosa, ashamed of his dark skin; so he bleached it.

Many Christian women of African descent will go to their churches and say Jesus, Jesus, Jesus!

But subliminally, Caucasian men are who they really desire and worship.

They will marry a man of African descent but he will never measure up to the ‘man’ whom they really love (which is Caucasian Jesus).

The majority of them will not even realize that they are psychologically in love with all Caucasian men.

The psychological chains around their hearts and minds are not visible except to those who can read the signs.

Straight hair wigs and weaves, dyeing their hair in various colors, skin bleaching to lighten their skin and sometimes cosmetic surgery to straighten their noses.

Who is this done for? Who are they trying to please?

Certainly not their men of African descent.

They are trying to fulfill the image of what, Caucasian men desire for their women.

Caucasian men like their women to dress and look a certain way.

So the women of African descent, are trying to follow that fashion.

Absorb This!

This Information ℹ️ is Provided by Chiniquy –

Many of our women with this type of mentality; usually are the angriest when they have been rejected by Caucasian society.

They are angry, because they have tried so hard to be perceived as one of them (Caucasians), that the rejection is felt deeply.

Women of African descent must wake up!

They must stop imitating the beauty standards of Caucasian women!

There is nothing wrong with your natural hair, or with your facial features or darker complexion.

You are beautiful just as you are.

You are doing mental and spiritual harm to (yourselves and your) children, from their earliest age, with your slavish imitation of Caucasian women.

You are raising your children into developing a low self-esteem about their physical appearance.

You can bring about a positive change for the future generations of our people by stopping IMMEDIATELY this slavish worship and imitation of Caucasian women.

This Information ℹ️ is Provided by Chiniquy –

Absorb This!

Men of African descent must also wake up!

A real man would not worship an image supposedly of a g-o-d that looks like another race of people.

How could he sit in his house of worship and see his wife and his children looking up reverently, towards the image of a man belonging to a race other than his own?

Especially of a race that has historically treated our people worse than animals.

To see the Creator in any physical imagery is wrong!!

But it is even worse for a people to worship HIM in an image that belongs to another race.

This Information ℹ️ is Provided by Chiniquy –


The majority of the television programs are designed to make Caucasian believe that they are a superior race.

Even when some of these shows, include people of other races; the shows are still designed to make these other races look less than the Caucasian characters.

All this talk about “liberal Hollywood” is all bullcrap.

The media if they were not promoting division among the races, could eliminate racism in our country (and around the world) in less than 10 years.

With the right type of programming; racism would disappear.

Those idiotic movies made recently supposedly about Moses, Jesus and Noah just creates more racists among Caucasians and mental slaves among non Caucasians..

The subliminal ideas promoted by these movies and the false teachings of Christianity is that The Creator only send inspiration to the Caucasian race.


Those who continue to worship the Creator in the image of a man or say that the creator has a son, will continue to live miserable lives.

No matter how hard or loud they shout their erroneous beliefs in their churches.

This Information ℹ️ is Provided by Chiniquy –


We must put our complete faith and trust in The One and Only Creator of the Heavens and Earth.

There is only One Creator; and HE does not have flesh and blood children.

HE is not part of the creation.

Trusting in HIM alone, will lead us into overcoming the evils of this world.

Then no one can stop us from achieving success as a people.

People who don’t like us because of our race or our new religious beliefs; are just the obstacles put in our way to make us trust in HIM even more.

The more you depend on The One *G-D, the more HE will respond to you.

With the help of The All-Mighty Creator; EVERYTHING is possible.

Imam Wallace D. Mohammed (who was the leader of the largest group of Muslim Americans) often asked his students not to identify our racial/ethnic group by skin color.

Here is an excerpt from the April 1984 Jumah (Friday) service delivered in Harlem N.Y. at the Masjid Malcolm Shabazz.

This Information ℹ️ is Provided by Chiniquy –

Imam Mohammed (April 1984) said, “Sometime, I wonder why the whites like to call us black and them white?

Then it came to me.

They are speaking to a reality that we would like to ignore or shut our eyes to.

That reality is that we lack, we lack the means, supports, etc., to establish our race in America.

We are people lacking.

Do you know that B.L.A.C.K is “B lack”. We say black but it’s “b lack”, be lacking.

We are be lacking in so many ways.

Now, that’s not our language, that’s English. I wonder how come they like to call us blacks?

I’ve been talking to them, and I say, “Why are you calling me black?” I show them something that darker than me. I say, “What color is that?

They say, “Dark brown.” I say, “How come I’m black and that’s dark brown and I’m lighter than that?”

Since the passing of Imam W. Deen Mohammed some Muslims among his students have returned to using racist language by identifying themselves by skin color.

*G-D instead of god. When it is spelt backwards it is “dog.” This is not a respectful spelling to be used for The Lord-Creator of the Heavens and Earth.

In addition this English spelling of god was a secret joke on the Christians in England by their secretive Satanic minded masters.

What they were saying was: Christianity is like a dog with a master.It can ony go where we let it.

In later centuries, people with similar evil minds created the dog collar shirts worn by priests.

The shirt was buttoned from the back like the collar of a dog. The dog’s collar has a place in the back where a leash is attached

Thus cementing the secret message, that Christianity was under their control; that it was on a leash.



Click below to ‘read’ the article.





This is the Reason Why, some European countries and the USA Believe that they are Entitled to Rule and Control the World.

Absorb This!






Absorb This!

Why Are People of African Descent, Still Doing This?

With 7 comments

Why are so many People of African Descent, Suffering from an Ugly Duckling Syndrome?

Why are so many People of African Descent, Suffering from an Ugly Duckling Syndrome?

Marcus Garvey’s Speech: Confession of a Great White Man & and Leader

This Information ℹ️ is Provided by Chiniquy –


French President Emmanuel Macron said: *”With a family that has seven, eight children in Africa, even if you invest billions, nothing will change, because the challenge of Africa is civilizational”.* The Guinean sociologist Amadou Douno, a professor at the Ahmadou-Dieng University of Conakry, answers him.
*”Africans do not need your debauchery civilization. Because with your civilization: a man can sleep with a man; a woman can sleep with a woman; a single president can have two mistresses at a time; a woman can sleep with her dog; a child can insult his father and mother without problem; a child can imprison his parents.”*
*”With your civilization, when parents are getting older, they are taken to the retirement home, and finally, with your civilization, a young man can live with a woman who is his mother’s age or his grandma without problem. Your case is a perfect illustration!* *Africans have no civilization lesson to receive from people like you!* *Africa is by far the richest continent in the world with its enormous mineral wealth. What is delaying this continent is the large-scale pillage of its resources by the great powers, France in the lead!”* *”All the misery of Africa comes from this country that realizes its ambitions on the backs of Africans, with the complicity of these traitors who do not hesitate to sacrifice entire generations by delivering their countries to the former colonizing power.* *They entrust all the key sectors of their economies to France. In reality, they lead the political strategy or vision desired by the former settler.* *This contributes to driving their populations into misery and extreme poverty.* *This is the cause of coups d’état, civil wars, genocides, famines, with despots at the head of these countries that are kept in power by France, because it meets all their requirements!”*
*”France is nothing without Africa! The day the African countries turn their backs on France, this country will plunge into chaos! As long as African countries do not abandon this domination of the former colonial power, by taking charge of their own destiny, as the Asian countries have done, it will be very difficult for them to get out of the abyss.* *The challenge for Africa is to get rid of France. Because the latter is not the solution to its underdevelopment, it is at the heart of the problem!*


White Inferiority Complex Kills All Life Slowly!

Read this…👍👍👍

*Killer speech by Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe:*

_”Racism will never end as long as white cars are still using black tyres. Racism will never end if people still use black to symbolise bad luck and white for peace. Racism will never end if people still wear white clothes to weddings and black clothes to funerals. Racism will never end as long as those who don’t pay their bills are blacklisted not white listed. Even when playing snooker, you haven’t won until you’ve sunk the black ball, and the white ball must remain on the table! ………….But I don’t care, as long as I’m still using white toilet paper to wipe my black ass, I’m happy.”_


Slavery Reminds everybody of a particularly Destructive Race if Man Upon this Earth 🌏

Even After Enslavement – Europeans still rub everybody’s nose in it!

No Empathy shows us all that some Europeans need removing from the land of the living!

Africa – Motherland Of I Man

Forget the term ‘Black People’ Ethnic Minority’s, all the Doctrinations, Ideological Behaviourism, Displacement, Oppression, Depression, Religions, Tribes, Society’s, Names Of Cities, Countries, Governments, Economies, Names Of Oceans, Names Of Seas, Names Of Islands, because it’s all fake Beliefs and worshipping externally!


Did Y’all Know Dat?

Did Y’all Know Dat? All Debts Are Pre-Paid!

All Debts Are Pre-Paid – But Y’all Don’t Know Dat, So Continue to be Slaves Of a Fraudulently Operated System to Pay Mortgages/Loans/Taxes/Fines/Fees/Fiat Currency’s Blindly, Making the Central Banking Cartels incredibly Wealthy, as they use this trick called ‘MONEY’ to steal the very wealth right from under y’all noses, because your too preoccupied with the institutional ideology set upon y’all from before you were even born.

So of you believing in education and Schooling as a means to get ahead in the working world 🌍 and use the remainder of y’all time indulging in the Mass Media Propaganda and complete distraction of your time, whilst the ‘Elitist’ continues to bombard y’all with alternatives like the classic divide and conquer.

While everyone is fighting and criticising each other over trivial things, some very clever individuals are raking in your hard earned ‘Real Estates’ and consuming all your energies.

Did Y’all realise that all wars in the last 200 years was funded on purpose by that same elite groups of individuals. They have rationalised that, if your uncooperative nations of indigenous peoples are given passive but purposeful Media lies and propaganda, along with guns and false ideas to promote, that they can actually get y’all to gather up the most physically strong and courageous fighting forces (mainly all your children) to start wars with each other and wipe themselves out , but not completely, as some are needed to continue the work load for the elites, and allow the elites to take up governance over your nations of relatively weak and war torn, and battered people, drained after such actions, and rule over y’all?

See the Rothschilds Work – And Hand Of Destruction to each and every nation since they deceived us all centuries ago Below!

How risky is sovereign debt?

One memorable answer, “Countries don’t go bankrupt,” is attributed to Walter Wriston, the most prominent banker of his day and the Chairman of Citibank from 1967 to 1984. That is right in a narrow legal sense, since a sovereign government cannot be put into bankruptcy. But in the general sense, everybody knows it is disastrously wrong: governments can and do go broke and not pay on their debt.

The 1980s dramatically falsified the Wriston answer. A large number of governments with heavy borrowings from U.S. banks were broke and defaulting. This led to highly-placed fears that the entire American banking system might be insolvent. So Paul Volcker, then Chairman of the Federal Reserve, papered over the crisis by ordering that the banks’ books be cooked and losses postponed. When the crisis broke in 1982, Volcker is reported to have said one Friday evening, “The American banking system might not last until Monday”!

More recently, we have had the European sovereign debt crisis of 2009-2012, which threatened the entire European banking system, imposed huge losses on lenders to the government of Greece-they got 25 cents on the dollar in the 2012 debt restructuring–and raised the possibility of more big losses on the debts of Italy, Spain and Portugal. Of course, the insolvency of the Greek government is still playing out. Demonstrating a typical lack of imagination, European officials had claimed that sovereign defaults in Europe were unthinkable.

How often do governments go broke and default on their debts? Quite often, it turns out. In the last 100 years, from 1915 to 2015, there were 189 cases of sovereign defaults and restructurings. This involved 80 countries-many were multiple defaulters. In the last 50 years, from 1965 to now, there have been 123 defaults involving 68 countries. In this period, many new sovereign nations had been created, so it gave the possibility, or rather near certainty, or more sovereign defaults.

The following chart displays the 100-year pattern of sovereign defaults by decade. Note the peaks in the 1930s and 1980s, fifty years apart. The 1990s are in third place for this dubious prize, followed by the decade 2000-2010.

Sources: Reinhart, Carmen M., and Kenneth S. Rogoff. 2008. “The Forgotten History of Domestic Debt.” NBER

The defaults on this graph include many Latin American, African and Asian countries, but Europe and North America are also well represented.

The United States government appears three times: when it defaulted on its gold bonds in 1933; when it rejected its obligation to redeem silver certificates for silver in 1968; and when it reneged on its Bretton Woods commitment to redeem dollars for gold in 1971. With this last default, it launched the world into an unprecedented experiment in pure fiat currencies with floating exchange rates-an experiment whose implications we are still discovering. Note that each of the U.S. government’s defaults involved refusing to honor its promise to pay in precious metals. Now its debt is payable only in a paper currency which its central bank earnestly promises to depreciate every year in perpetuity.

To give a flavor of the variety of countries in the sovereign default club, here are the lists for the worst three decades of the last century:

1930s: Austria, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada (Alberta), Chile, China, Columbia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Romania, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Yugoslavia.

1980s: Angola, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Central African Republic, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ghana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Liberia, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nigeria, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zambia.

1990s: Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Brazil, Bulgaria, Croatia, Ecuador, Gabon, Iran, Iraq, Kenya, Kuwait, Mongolia, Morocco, Nigeria, Russia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Thailand, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela.

“The history of government loans is really a history of government defaults,” wrote Max Winkler, in his instructive and cynical book, Foreign Bonds: An Autopsy. History “is replete with instances of governmental defaults,” Winkler observed. “When payment is resumed, the past is easily forgotten and a new borrowing orgy ensues.” That was written in 1933, but is fully up to date.

In all cases, of course, it is a government which is in debt and defaulting, not the country itself. One source of sovereign default is when governments are overthrown and the new regime repudiates the debt of the old one. Notable cases are Russia in 1917 and China in 1949. Another source of default is losing a big war and disappearing as a government, as with Germany, Japan and the Confederate States of America.

But far more common is years of excessive borrowing, whether optimistic or opportunistic, followed by simply being broke and inviting the creditors to join in the losses.

How risky is sovereign debt? Far riskier than good times complacently assume.

As many emerging market countries struggle financially and economically today, are we approaching a new round of sovereign defaults and restructurings? There is certainly no reason to believe that government defaults are out of style. They will occur as long as governments love to spend and love to borrow to keep spending, and as long as lenders have short memories-that is, forever.

Alex J. Pollock is a distinguished senior fellow at the R Street Institute in Washington, D.C. He was President and CEO of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago from 1991-2004

Vanilla is not White Origins of White and Black People

Irrefutable Proof that White People are not Human. 1. UNNATURAL DISEASE: The World Population was Happy and Healthy until Europeans arrived with Small Pox, Chicken Pox, Measles, Cholera, Malaria, T…

Source: Vanilla is not White Origins of White and Black People